Welcome to EPS Health Journal


Case management or assertive community treatment: are they really alternative approaches?
Michele Tansella, Mirella Ruggeri

Case management and assertive community treatment. What is the difference?
Tom Burns

What have we learnt from 40 years of research on Intensive Case Management?
Max Marshall

So what shall we do about assertive community treatment?
Sonia Johnson

Allocation concealment and blinding in clinical trials
Corrado Barbui, Andrea Cipriani, Michela Nosè

Social cognition, schizophrenia and brain imaging
Paolo Brambilla, Marcella Bellani

What is this thing called “sad”? A critique of the concept of seasonal affective disorder
Eiliv Lund, Vidje Hansen, Ingunn Skre

Recovery: an international perspective
Michaela Amering, Lindsay Oades, Mike Slade

Loss to follow-up in longitudinal psychiatric research
Thomas W. Kallert, Stefan Priebe, Tomasz Adamowki, Matthias Schutzwohl, Donna Wright, Joanna Rymaszewska, Petr Nawka, Ladislav Ocvar, Jiri Raboch, Eva Kitzlerova, Tilly Eichler

General Health Questionnaire-12 items: adaptation study to the Portuguese population
Carlos Antonio Laranjeira

L’Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. Adattamento italiano di uno strumento per la valutazione dei trattamenti psicologici
Luca Bensi, Salvatore Gullo, Gianluca Lo Coco, Marco Chiappelli, Claudia Prestano

Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared
Charlotte de Heer-Wunderink, Annemarie D. Caro-Nienhuis, Sjoerd Sytema, Durk Wiersma…

Major Causes Of Skin Aging


When one develops wrinkles, then you should probably realize that he or she is aging. Other outward elements can signify aging, some of them we could have never thought of before. But the most revealing changes occur to the skin. To completely understand how our skin ages, it is important that we first understand the anatomy and makeup of our skin.

Here are the major causes of skin aging

Chronological process of agingskincarerightasdfghj

When one is aging, the skin cells become thinner and less sticky hence making the skin look thinner. The absence of skin thickness interferes with the skin functions hence allowing the loss of moisture trough discharge as opposed to it being held in the skin. This leads to the skin becoming dry. This is why the skin is not able to repair it quickly as one age.

Sun damage

Most of the premature skin aging that individual experience at the moment is caused by the overexposure of one’s skin to the dangerous rays that come from the sun. This is why you will realize that most individuals are bearing the effects of photo-aging which come in the form of development of spots and wrinkles. This can happen to one as early as they turn 20. The extent to which exposure can damage one’s skin is determined by the length of time they are exposed to the sun plus the extent to which their pigment protects their skin.

Hormonal change

Biological research that has been carried out has established that it is quite possible that the hormonal change that is brought about by menopause and the reduced production of estrogen in women is a leading factor that causes aging. But researchers have gone ahead and established the changes that are particularly caused by a reduced production of estrogen or which of the skin changes that are caused by extreme exposure to sun rays. The reduced production of estrogen in most cases leads to reduced collagen levels and hence reducing the skin thickness.

Muscle use

When you frequently use facial expressions, the skin is most likely to develop wrinkles since it loses its elasticity. This habit leads to the development of crows feet at the corners of the eyes and frown lines also develop between the eyebrows. Due to these, small muscles in and around this areas contract regularly and permanently hence causing wrinkle formation.

Poor skin health

If you do not stick to the right diskincareleftsdfghet, then your skin will lack the nutrients that it needs. It does not receive proteins that are essential in the regeneration and production of elastin and collagen. Taking mineral and vitamin rich foods is important as help in reducing the rate of skin aging.

Now that you know the major causes of skin aging, you should make sure that you avoid them. Make good choices of the foods you eat and avoid overexposing yourself to the sun.…

Reasons To Avoid Soft Drinks


Everybody likes taking soft drinks, they sparkle, fizzle, and they also have a sweet taste, everybody is bound to love them. But as popular as these soft drinks can be, many individuals don’t know what these soft drinks are made of, nor do they know what harm these drinks can cause to their bodies.

Reasons why you need to avoid soft drinks

Increased blood sugar level and body fathealthylifestylerightsxdvfgnh

For those individuals who are suffering from high sugar level, consumption of soft drinks on a regular basis can cause you a lot of harm. For instance, in a single can of most of the soft drinks, an equivalent of 10 teaspoons of sugar is added. When one consumes such an amount of sugar in one go, more especially if it is in liquid form, there is an increase in the blood sugar level which directly reacts with the insulin in the body. For the healthy ones who may think that such consumption cannot affect them, they should be informed that continued consumption of such drinks can lead to one developing diabetes. They also may also give rise to obesity.

Contain phosphoric acid

Another major ingredient of soft drinks is phosphoric acid. Research has shown that phosphoric acid greatly interferes with the bodies ability to absorb calcium properly. This will eventually lead to one developing cavities, osteoporosis and even the softening of bones. The acid also reacts with stomach acids hence interfering with the digestion process, and in some cases, it even blocks the absorption of nutrients.

Mystery of diet soda

Most individuals are attracted to soft drinks when they listen to the word diet soda. What they do not know is that such drinks are not good for their diet. These soft drinks may not be having sugar, but Aspartame is used in them as a substitute for sugar. This particular element is even more dangerous than sugar itself. It has been proven that Aspartame is responsible for some health complications. Some of this complications include seizures, multiple sclerosis, emotional disorders and even development of brain tumors. Soft drinks that use Aspartame as a substitute for sugar have a high risk of causing metabolic syndrome, a condition responsible for belly fat and can lead to one developing high blood pressure.

No nutritional value

Another very important point to note is that the simple reason why one should avoid taking such soft drinks as soda is that they do not have any nutritional value. These soft drinks are in most cases consumed without any good reason. This is why it is advisable to take water as opposed to these soft drinks since you will spare your body a lot of harm.

Contains caffeine

Everybody has come across healhtylifestyleleftsgdhfjthe word caffeine. Most of the soft drinks that are available in the market contain caffeine. Caffeine has been proven to be a major cause of cancer, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, breast lumps and other problems. Other ingredients in these soft drinks like sodium and sugar, the soft drinks are responsible for the dehydration of the body if consumed for long.…